What Is Active Learning?

I have been reading numerous articles about Project Based Learning, Problem Based Learning, Genius Hour and anything to do with hands-on learning and I kept seeing the word Active Learning. I guessed it meant that whoever was doing the learning was staying active. Makes sense to me.

Recently, I had the opportunity to sit on a University of Michigan Bosch Best panel to discuss STEM education and I thought I would look up some information on what the University of Michigan was doing. I found out that the Center of Research on Learning and Teaching helped me answer my question. I learned that the term Active Learning has been around for a while. Michael Prince defined it as “Active Learning is generally defined as any instructional method that engages students in the learning process. In short, active learning requires students to do meaningful learning activities and think about what they are doing” .(Prince, 2004).

Jump forward a bit. I had some time to watch Matt Miller’s DitchSummit and the first video I watched was Solid Teaching Craftsmanship for EVERYONE with Jon Corippo & Cate Tolnai (Crafty CUE Crafters)

Everything in this video screamed Active Learning. Jon Corippo spoke about the shift in learning and I made a quick graphic of what he was talking about.

He mentioned that we are moving from an “Outremembering/traditional approach to an Outcreating, Outsharing and Outadapting style. I am not sure how you could make that leap without Active Learning. Students need to own their learning, collaborate, communicate with each other (argue a little), critically think about decisions they are making and have the opportunity to be creative. I believe that the CrossBraining Platform does all of this, and yes, I am biased because I built it. I built it out of necessity to deliver the type of learning that I wanted to see in my classroom.

Here is a quick “Active Learning” lesson you can do in your classroom tomorrow. Have your students to do the Marshmallow Challenge. It is simple. Watch this Ted Talk and see just how easy it is to hand over the control to your class. Let them be active while applying knowledge and skills to build the best tower they can come up with. I recently sent our subscribers a video of this challenge and the modified the lesson to go with it. If you want to subscribe to our YouTube channel, click here

Is Active Learning effective? The article that the University Of Michigan posted stated this “The benefits of active learning have been supported time and again in the literature. By comparing student learning gains in introductory physics courses, Richard Hake was able to show that interactive courses were over two times as effective in promoting conceptual understanding as compared to traditional ones (Hake, 1998). A more recent meta-analysis by Freeman et al. reported results from 225 studies across STEM disciplines, comparing traditional lecture to active learning (Freeman, 2014). In general, students’ average exam scores were shown to improve by around 6% in active learning classes. Additionally, students involved in traditional lecture were found to be 1.5 times more likely to fail as compared to those in classes with significant active learning.”

Wrapping it up. What is Active Learning? The University of Michigan also defined it by showing pictures. I am also going to post some pictures of what I think Active Learning looks like. If you want to manage Active Learning, reach out to us and get a free trial of the CrossBraining App. It was built for YOU and “Active Learning”. When is the best time to start Active Learning? Jeff Crowley from Dewitt Public School’s classroom clock says it best.

Cultivating Curiosity and Creativity: CrossBraining Maker Education App for STEM & STEAM

Cultivating Curiosity and Creativity: CrossBraining Maker Education App for STEM & STEAM

Mark Adams from Vitsoe, the creators of the 606 Universal Shelving System has learned there is a high correlation between how intensely someone played with Legos as a child and how well he or she will fit with the Vitsoe culture.

Legos? Yes, Legos. Let’s take a look at Maker Education and how to cultivate curiosity/creativity in the classroom. You will see why this is important in graduating future-ready kids and why Mark and other companies love kids who play with Legos and Make.

In order to begin this awesome journey and to see why Making works, we will need to explore why management and ownership are critical in Making and in education.

Ownership, nothing cries ownership more than making. Whether your class is using Legos to build a Zipline; or you are studying ancient gods and goddesses and having your students create a menu and serve a dish that your god or goddess would have eaten, you are giving your students the opportunity to Make. Making provides students the opportunity to own their learning. This fosters creativity, communication, collaboration and critical thinking which are the skills employers are seeking in their employees.
When you hand a learner a worksheet, it was made by someone else, it is organized by someone else, and the answers are often definitive and the assessment is done by the person handing it out.
When you hand a learner a challenge, they are forced to think about how they will build a solution, organize the steps to solve it and often the answers are infinite and when answers are discussed, it gives students the opportunity to assess.
In the book Essentialism, Greg McKeown says, “A sense of ownership is a powerful thing, as the saying goes, nobody in the history of the world has washed their rental car! This is because of something called “the endowment effect”, our tendency to undervalue things that aren't ours and to overvalue things because we already own them.” It is imperative that students feel ownership in their learning.

Steve Jobs famously said, “It doesn't make sense to hire smart people and tell them what to do; we hire smart people so they can tell us what to do.”

I will never bash an educator who uses worksheets. Worksheets have their place in learning. But, in order to develop “smart people,” we have to give them tons of opportunity to cultivate curiosity and creativity. Learners have to own their learning and the only way to own your learning is to know how to manage it. If we give them experiences in how to walk through phases of a task, where they are forced to make their own decisions on how the task will get done, by the time they graduate, they will have developed the future-ready skills to go into the careers and feel confident enough to share ways on how to get things done because they will have had years of experience.

So how do you do this? Rethink Management and Ownership.

After 21 years of teaching, I have concluded that there are two reasons why educators use textbooks and worksheets opposed to Making; Management and Control. It is easy to say, “Turn to page 123 and read to 130, then answer 1-5. That statement is all about management and control. It is exactly why I created CrossBraining. I needed to create a process to manage projects and give control and ownership to the students so I could stop teaching and become a Talent Developer.

I believe if you ask 100 teachers if they believe hands-on learning is an important part of a learner’s education, 90 educators would strongly answer yes; but if you walk down the hall of any school in America, 90 percent of the classrooms would not be actively involved in a hands-on project. Why? Management and Control. If you want to have a classroom full of Making, creativity and projects that scream curiosity, you HAVE to have a management system and be able to show learners how to own their learning so learners are in Control.

I created a competency-based app (Maker Education App) that gives each student in their group ownership over how the task will get done. This is also a management system that empowers them to use their creativity, rely heavily on communication, demand critical thinking, and forces collaboration all while managing the entire process using 8-10 second video artifacts through four phases.

Plan - Draw out the plan of how you will pull of the task
Perform - Go make, build create, execute your plan
Polish - Time to iterate, edit, fix and make changes
Produce - Show your final product whether it works or not

During each phase, the group has three tasks to complete. These tasks are assigned to group members and they are held responsible to get them complete. They own their task and have to decide how that task will get done. The tasks in each phase are:

Capture - Capture 8-10 seconds of that phase being done using a camera
Narrate - Narrate that 8-10 second video using key terms from learning goals (I can statement)
Reflect - Answer questions that the teacher assigned to the group.

Students capture, reflect and narrate their learning using key terms from their learning goals. Each time the group completes a task, the teacher instantly sees their group status. When the group is done with the task, the program turns their work into a 45-second student narrated video using key terms from the learning goals.

The blue indicators turn on when a group has completed that task. When all of the tasks are done, the director’s icon turns blue indicating the 45-second video is complete and ready to watch or download.

I keep this up on my Smartboard so groups can see the status of everyone’s project. It gives me the tool to go facilitate with groups and I know exactly who to help, down to the student.

Imagine if every student, starting at a young age, was given the opportunity to own more of their learning. What if they were empowered to manage most of their learning.? This would empower teachers to shift from being teachers to talent developers. Making is owning and when we hand the ownership back over to the student, we create an environment that cultivates curiosity and creativity.

What I Learned At FETC

I had the privilege to be at FETC in Florida last week to release the CrossBraining App. I made sure to sneak away from the vendor booth to watch one of the best education speakers on planet Earth.

Sir Ken Robinson hit another grand slam. Educators love him for his humor and hard hitting truths about the education system around the world. I took away two very positive messages. One was that educators need to glean how successful historical social movements really work and how they change the way we think. He started by walking the audience through history pointing out various movements that made significant changes in how we think and act today. He then began talking about the recent #metoo movement. He explained that this movement certainly did not come from the movie producers but was a grassroots movement that started with the actresses who were sexually harassed, demeaned and assaulted. He made it clear that the #metoo movement was certainly not spearheaded by the government and explained that these incredible game changing movements come from the ground up.

He is a gifted storyteller so every educator was at the edge of their seats, and then he called the 5,000 + educators to ban together and start a movement that will change education. He explained that the government will not change education, it will be the teachers. I have believed this for a very long time. Technology is allowing us to stand at different corners of our country and ban together socially through networks, social media. We collectively can change education system. I started CrossBraining to do exactly this. I thought that if I could create an app that could have students make 45-second videos of the entire learning process, parents could have a window into the classroom but I also thought, if those 45-second student narrated videos were shared with other teachers and thousands of teachers shared just ONE great lesson that could be tagged, reviewed and rated like a youtube video, then collectively we would have access to thousands of great lessons and transform education now!


Capturing Performance in the Classroom

Performance: Phase 2 CrossBraining App

( If you did not get a chance to read about Planning: Phase 1, click this link to check it out. Phase 1: Planning.)


Here is a quick recap. CrossBraining helps teachers and students capture and manage four phases of a lesson and or project.  There are three leadership roles in each phase: Reflection Leader, Capture Leader and Narration Leader. The four phases are: planning, performance, iteration and final product.    


Performance Reflection

Why does CrossBraining focus so much on reflection?  Reflection is the key to learning.  In an article called What Meaningful Reflection On Student Work Can Do for Learning, Mindshift wrote “Metacognitive reflection, however, takes this process to the next level because it is concerned not with assessment, but with self-improvement: Could this be better? How? What steps should you take?” a student who has learned the value of metacognitive reflection will recognize frustration as a signal to pause and think through the situation instead of plowing ahead with the same approach or giving up entirely.”


The group has their plan and is now ready to perform. The moment the group begins, each student in the group begins thinking.


The following video shows students going through all four phases and there is a moment in the video where a student says “If...”.  When a student says, “If” it means they have reflected.  Teachers need to hear those words a lot in class.


Here is a short list of words that show that a student is reflecting:

  • If I would have…..
  • Next time I will….
  • We didn’t
  • We should have…
  • One mistake we….
  • We feel that…
  • We learned to…
  • Now that we...


The students and I review this list and brainstorm about how to respond to their reflections, in their video.  The hope is that reflection will help them continuously move forward in their learning journey.


The goal of the teacher is to nurture their thinking process and help them drive their thinking in the best direction.  Arthur L. Costa and Bena Kallick said, “To best guide children in the habits of reflection, teachers approach their role as that of "facilitator of meaning making."


The students in this group make a writing vending machine to sell their stories.  The whole goal of the project is to sell.  This means  the reflection should be centered around the sales.  Here are some questions that I provided the students:


  • Your craftsmanship will affect sales.  Is your vending machine made well?  Are you thinking about craftsmanship while you are cutting?
  • Are you picking colors that you like or have you researched colors on the Internet that help sell products?
  • Who is your target audience?  Will your vending machine attract this audience?
  • During the event, do you see something another group did well that helped them get sales?  Are other groups talking about ideas that you think would work for you and your vending machine?
  • Do you really care about the product that you are making?  If not, how are you going to still make a good product when you don’t really care about it?  What is going to drive you to make a great product?
  • Did you ever think about restarting the project?  What is keeping you from making it great?
  • Are you sharing some of your “ah ha” moments with another group?  Would you want another group to share their “ah ha” moments with you?


Capturing Performance

This can be very fun for creative students while others might not want to pick up a camera.  Collaboration between group members helps the capture leader capture the group's performance.  The reflection leader and narration leader are continuously having conversations with the capture leader.  


These conversations will help the capture leader get great footage.  I always tell my students to do whatever they can to NOT capture group members’ faces.  The goal is to capture the lesson/project.  The group should discuss POV (point of view) and equipment they need to get good footage. Do they grab a GoPro or smartphone? What moments are taking place during the performance that show learning?  Should they be capturing measurement? Researching online for part of a lecture? Testing an idea?


You can see that what they capture is dependent on their reflection.  This will also guide the narration.  Imagine that  the lesson is about kinetic energy.  If the student is demonstrating a Hot Wheels car going around a loop da loop, shouldn’t the group have footage of the car going through the loop da loop while the narrator is explaining kinetic energy?  The team has to work cohesively to pull this off. This is a future- ready skill that all employers are looking for.


Performance Narration

Student voice is displayed in capturing moments but it really shines when a student is speaking about the learning that is taking place.  The group has reflected, talked about key moments that need to be captured; and if this is done well, the narration often spills onto the page.  The teacher will give the group a list of key terms that must be used in the narration.  Let’s take a look at the Vending Machine project.  Here is a list of a few key terms in that lesson:



  • Fiction
  • Non Fiction
  • 8x8x8 Cube
  • Light Indicator
  • Hydraulics
  • Sold
  • If we would…



Everyone in the group knows that in order to use these words in their 45-second video, they must reflect among each other and have a plan to capture these moments.  The capture leader must capture the hydraulics going up and down. Through reflection the capture leader will know exactly where to put the camera to do this.  


Some groups might decide to put the camera on the hydraulics showing the movement of going up and down.  The creativity and collaboration drive the decision making.  This also drives the personalization of the video.  No two videos are the same.  


The performance narration leader has an important role in telling the learning story.  They are storytellers of performance and it must be timed with the footage that was captured.  This narration creates an authentic moment to be fluent.  The group will practice the script that goes with the narration because fluency now has purpose.


Here is a screenshot of the beta app that shows the narration and video, side by side, with a timer that is displayed to give the narrator a time reference to guide their fluency.  If there isn’t enough video time, then the group will reflect to determine if they need more video or if they cut out words in the narration.  They all depend on each other to pull this off.

Article Why Planning is Important

Our four phase digital storytelling app  manages, captures and shares content mastery.  Every teacher has great lessons or projects and the CrossBraining App  is a tool that helps teachers manage the delivery of those lessons. In addition,  it guides students on how to capture and personalize their learning that takes place in the lesson or project.


Over the next four weeks I will be walking you through the four phases of the CrossBraining App (Plan, Perform, Change, Final Product).  I will also show you videos of students going through each phase.


Let’s jump into Planning.  Every person who has a career must plan.  Lawyers, coaches, teachers and waste management people all have a plan.  Every person performing a task has a plan (even students).   


  1. Edwards Deming created The Deming Cycle back in the 1950’s to give businesses a model on how to continually improve.  It starts with a plan.

Hoshin Kanri and Peter Drucker combined the Deming Model with a few questions.  In the planning stage they ask, “What are our objectives and what are we trying to achieve?”  These types of questions guide businesses and students into reflection.

CrossBraining believes that when students plan and think about how they will complete a lesson or project task, they will have a higher rate of success.  Metacognition is a key factor in making CrossBraining so effective. It has often been said that project planning equals project success.  

John Spencer talks about the shift from engaging students to empowering learners.  I know that he is correct when he says that the shift goes from you must learn this to what do you want to learn. I add that in order to make that shift happen, students need to have a process in place and the first step in that process is Planning.  

Movie directors go through a pre-production brainstorming phase, scientists do research in the planning phase.  If we all sit and think for a  moment, every task starts with a plan.  Once every student understands that planning is part of the process for success, they naturally adopt it into their learning.  It gives them a process that makes them successful in school and life.  The CrossBraining Phases make the student Future Ready.

Does the planning phase take place in every lesson or Project?  The answer is YES!  Let’s take a lesson that every teacher has taught.  A math story problem.  Let’s say you tell a group of three students that they will be solving a story problem together.  

When the group comes up with a plan, on paper, of how they will solve that task and come up with a final product, they will most likely be more successful than those without a plan.  Whether students work on a story problem or a month long project, they need a plan.  



Each student in the group has a leadership role.  It is very important to empower students to be actively involved in each phase.  Say goodbye to those group projects where one student does everything.

Leadership Roles in the Planning Phase:

  • Reflection Leader
  • Capture Leader
  • Narration Leader


The Planning Reflection Leader guides their group through a series of reflection questions in the planning phase that helps their fellow students handle conflict when it arises, think about coordination of the plan, who is responsible for what jobs, how to control the time it takes to carry out the plan.  

Reflection helps them control their plan so that the plan increases the effectiveness of their final product.  The teacher is now a facilitator. The students begin driving the questions that will allow them to navigate the lesson or project.  The reflection leader steers the group through questioning so that they have a plan that they think will work.


The Planning Capture Leader is in charge of capturing the planning and the plan itself:  

  • They will determine the angles and point of view they want to record.  
  • They will think through how they will capture this in 5-8 seconds.  
  • They will think about whether they need two 5-8 second clips or just one.  
  • The previous reflection will guide them on what to capture.  Some students capture the actual plan and others capture the plan with the group discussing it.
  • The leader will grab a GoPro or other device and know exactly what to capture.
  • They will upload the recording to their Chromebook or tablet and decide if it meets the groups expectations.  
  • They will work with the narration leader to see if they have enough footage for the narrator to explain this phase.  


Here is picture of narration next to video.  Notice there are 10 seconds of video.  The narration leader will need to see if they can fluently read the text they wrote out in 10 seconds.  The reflection leader will help the group think about whether they need more footage or less text.

The Planning Narration Leader’s responsibility is to look over the key terms from the Standards and make decisions on how to incorporate them into the narration.  During the planning phase, the planning narration leader words the video in a way that explains what the group is trying to accomplish and how they are going to accomplish it.  For example, they might be explaining a drawing or a list of jobs.  Plan come in various forms and this leader must coordinate with their group members so that they are fluently explaining the plan and making sure the footage and narration seamlessly work together to tell their group story.

5 Tips On Using a GoPro In the Classroom

This article is for that teacher who has been thinking about using a GoPro in the classroom but isn’t sure how it all works.  First of all, you probably picked a GoPro because:

  1. It is durable.
  2. You want your students using the GoPro Session not your Smartphone.
  3. It has better quality footage than your Chromebook
  4. You don’t want the iPad running everywhere.
  5. You want to shoot footage in the air or place the camera underwater.

All great reasons.

Here’s how to get started:

There are two buttons on both the Hero Session and the Hero5 Black.


Red to record                              Black button to get to menu

Capture learning. Turn on the GoPro camera all you have to do is press the red button on top and it starts recording.  Press it again and it stops recording.

After capturing some great learning, get your camera and the micro USB cord that came with it.   (In order for your computer/Chromebook to upload the captured footage you must have the camera ON.)   Start by plugging the micro USB cord into the camera.  Open the latch and plug it in.




Now plug in.

Next, turn the camera on by pressing the black button on the back next to the GoPro logo so the screen lights up..

The screen will light up indicating that camera is on.

Now plug it into your Chromebook.  If your camera is showing a RED light, that means your camera is charging which means you will NOT be able to get your footage.  Start over and go through the steps again.

To do this, simply plug the USB into the side of your Chromebook.  A screen will come up showing you that the computer is talking to the GoPro camera.  You can now click on the video you want to view or move the video over to your Google Drive.

Here is a screenshot of moving your video over to Google Drive


Summer EdTech Conference Choices

Summer is a great time for educators to reboot! This blog is focused on some of my favorite EdTech conferences where we can get new ideas  and meet other educators with enhanced teaching strategies and new ways to deliver engaging content. I have broken it down to National, Regional, State and Local conferences, all offering great sessions that will have an impact on your teaching and get you energized for the upcoming year.



ISTE is the International Society for Technology in Education.  This one is simply amazing.  It will be held in San Antonio, Texas on July 25th-28th.  The Keynote speakers are Jad Abumrad, Jennie Mageria and Reshma Saujani.  CrossBraining had a booth alongside GoPro last year and I would have to say it was one of the coolest experiences I have had as an educator.  Educators are super excited to be there and the vibe is infectious. There are hundreds of sessions to choose from and you can’t go wrong because the speakers are some of the best educators out there.  If you attend, be sure to catch a Matt Miller session, visit the Google interactive booth, try new gadgets at the CDW-G booth and try the Breakout EDU bus that might be parked outside the Henry B. Gonzalez Convention Center. When sessions are over, go check out the Symbaloo EdTech Karaoke contest. If you can not make it to ISTE, jump on Twitter and follow the #notatISTE to keep an eye on everything that is going on at the conference.


ISTE Karaoke                                              ISTE Booth


Regional- Ditch That Conference


Matt Miller continues his theme of Ditch That Textbook with a conference called Ditch That Conference.  This is the first time that Matt has hosted this event but not the first time where he has pulled in top notch presenters from all over the United States.  Back in December, Matt had a free online Digital Summit.  It was a nine day event where he featured a new presenter each day. Matt and the guest would talk about innovative ideas taking place in education.  I am sure that Matt will deliver the same awesome quality at his conference in September.





MACUL is hosting Michigan's is GoogleFEST in Grand Rapids, Michigan on August 8th and 9th.  This  is an event where attendees will get first-hand knowledge from Google Experts, Google Certified Instructors and Google using teachers.  GoogleFEST conferences have popped up all over the world and it is a time for educators to learn how to incorporate some of the innovative products that Google has to offer educators.


I think we will be seeing more and more of these types of conferences because technology overarches all of education and it is no longer a class at school. Teachers with Google Certifications can present at conferences like this making this type of conference very scalable because there are thousands of Google Certified teachers.


Every teacher needs to know how to use technology in their classrooms and this is a great place for all teachers regardless of their technology abilities.  I like conferences like this because the sessions are designed so the teacher can pick a beginner, novice or expert class.  I will be presenting a session called Digital Storytelling Made Easy at the GoogleFEST in Grand Rapids.  I will show attendees how their students can use the free Google Drive space to store all of their student made videos and how they can share these videos with authentic audiences.

Local- EdTech Kickoff


If you can not not make it to a national conference or don’t have the budget of time to make it to a State conference, find a way to go to a local EdTech conference.  Here is a statement on EdTech Kickoff being held in Brooklyn, Michigan this July. “This conference will showcase the great teaching, learning and innovation happening in Michigan area schools. Sessions range from Google to hands-on Makerspace activities. Your day will be filled with fun and motivation to kick-start the school year.”  These types of conferences are popping up all of the country.  It is a great way for educators to join a PLN (Personal Learning Network) so they can begin exchanging ideas with local teachers, possibly begin coordinating events with each other and to simply learn some new tricks.  I will be presenting at two sessions at this event because it is close to home and because I want to meet more teachers from my area.  Search Google using the key term EdTech Conference and see what pops up.



Attend a conference this summer and get stoked for fall 2017!

Digital Citizenship in the Classroom

Digital Citizenship in the Classroom


We are surrounded by digital technologies, at home, at school, at work, almost everywhere.  By raising awareness of the opportunities and risks inherent in digital technologies, our students will be better prepared in how to act online to avoid inflicting harm on themselves and others. Digital citizenship can be defined as the norms of appropriate, responsible behavior with regard to technology use. This article addresses digital citizenship and how three themes can be brought together while doing engaging activities in your classroom: digital communication, digital literacy and digital etiquette.


Digital Communication


When students work in groups to complete an engaging task we need to first explain to them why we are even doing the task.  Most teachers spend some time going over  the skills and standards that need to be addressed to pull off the task.  Then the teacher has them apply those skills to complete an engaging task so the students can see how and why those skills and standards are important to their life.  What often is missed is giving the students an authentic audience to share the work they completed.  For example,It could be as simple as sharing their work with their parents or extreme as showing students in another country.  When we start asking our students to share what they have learned to audiences outside the classroom it requires students to be completely aware of the decisions they make while on the computer.  This is an excellent time to help them think about communication avenues.  There are choices like SeeSaw, Google Classroom, Twitter, Facebook, Snapchat, Instagram and the list grows monthly.  Students are already making these choices on their own everyday at home often with our guidance.  Helping students learn proper channels is our responsibility and if we allow them to explain the choices they make in class to sharing their learning, they will more than likely be excited about the conversation and have plenty to say.  


Digital Literacy


When students are given an opportunity to share their learning they have an awesome opportunity to explore digital literacy.  Imagine if we asked our student to Screencastify their 3D modeling design on Tinkercad and they incorporated Explain Everything to share what they had done?  What if they wanted to narrate what they were doing (with the microphone on their computer by using the Tab Resize app in Chromestore) so they could split screen their narration and pull up Explain Everything App up right next to it, so they could read it fluently?  This is definitely App Smashing; but it is also giving students a safe place to learn about and use digital tools to show their knowledge and show their proficiency.


Digital Etiquette


I bring up Digital Etiquette a lot in my class.  It comes up because my students are using so many forms of communication tools and often combining them to show their proficiency.  This is such a great time to discuss the importance of their digital footprint along with having great conversations about why so many schools decide to ban things.  The students need to know the power of the Internet and they need to be in a safe place like a classroom to explore communication options and how to explore the responsibility associated with such an amazing tool like the internet.  A great place to find resources is Common Sense education.

When students are so close to technology and the digital world, they must know or know how to examine the impact of their online activities. Teachers must model ethical technology use for their students on a daily basis, and they must include conversations about it whenever technology is part of their lesson plan (everyday).